Tanjung Puting – Borneo Mammals

The Orangutan is a great ape with long arms and reddish brown fur. Orangutans are presently found only in rain forests of Tanjung Puting National Park, Borneo and Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, though they were once widely distributed in Southeast Asia (as far as southern China). Today orangutans are highly endangered in the wild due to the loss of habitat as a result of the destruction of rain forests for logging and agriculture and the illegal trapping of baby orangutans as pets.

WWF estimates there were around 55,000 Bornean orangutans in 2004, but the number has since dropped largely as a result of widespread forest fires and increased clearing for oil palm plantations. In August 2006, the Wildlife Conservation Society-Indonesia Program said that Indonesia’s population of orangutans stands at 20,000, down from 35,000 in 1996. Due to its slow rate of reproduction, environmental groups have warned that the red ape could go extinct in the wild without urgent conservation measures. Genetic analysis has recently concluded that there are three subspecies of orangutans in Borneo: Pongo Pygmaeus Morio (Northeastern Borneo orangutan), Pongo Pygmaeus Wurmbii (Central Borneo orangutan) and Pongo Pygmaeus Pygmaeus (Northwest Borneo orangutan).

Tanjung Puting National Park

Proboscis Monkey, Birds, Mammals overviews:
Borneo’s forests are highly bio-diversified. According to WWF, the island is estimated to have at least 222 species of mammals (44 of which are endemic), 420 resident birds (37 endemic), 100 amphibians, 394 fish (19 endemic), and 15,000 plants (6,000 endemic). More than 400 of which have been discovered in surveys since 1994.

Birds and wildlife in Tanjung Puting National Park:
Borneo is perhaps best known for its hornbills. 8 species are found on the island. Large and noisy but also colourful and charismatic, hornbills have remarkable nesting behaviour where the female is sealed on a tree hollow during the nesting period. At this time she is completely dependent on the male for food. If he is captured or killed, the female and her offspring will die.

Mammals Orangutan Tanjung Puting National Park
As in most tropical rainforests, the vast majority of mammals on Borneo consist of bats and rodents, which play important ecological roles, including seed dispersal and insect population control, in the forest ecosystem.

There are 13 species of primates on the island, the best known of which are the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Borneo is also home to the banteng (Bos javanicus), a species of wild ox, the highly endangered Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), which is smaller in stature than mainland elephants, the Sambar deer (Cervus unicolour), the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

Proboscis monkey in tanjung puting national park
The proboscis monkey lives only in the swampy lowland rainforests of coastal areas of Borneo and the Mentawai Islands. These large monkeys are best known for the male’s large protruding nose. Proboscis monkeys are social animals, living in groups of 10 to 32 individuals led by a single dominant male. The proboscis monkey is highly endangered. Less than 7000 are thought to exist in the wild.
Tanjung Puting National Park